Database management is a system of coordinating the information that supports a business’s operations. It includes data storage and distribution to application programs and users and modifying it as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from being corrupted due to unexpected failures. It is one component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a variety of fields, called attributes, that represent facts about the data entities. The most popular type of database currently is a relational model designed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it simpler to use. It also makes it simpler to update data since it eliminates the need to change many sections of the database.
Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases, offering internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database in user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of different external views that are based zunanjifitnes.si on different data models. It also may include virtual table that are computed using generic data to enhance the performance.