What is A Programming Language?
Definition of Programming Language: A programming Language is a set of words, Symbols, and codes that enables the Programmer to communicate the solution algorithm to the Computer.
Types of Programming Languages
There are three types of Programming Languages.
- Machine Language,
- Low-level Languages,
- High-Level Languages,
What is a Machine Language?
A machine language is a programming language in which instructions allow the computer to perform it functions directly and no translation is being required. Instructions in this language are in the form of a binary code, also called machine code and are called machine instructions. Machine instructions are stored in the same way as data and instruction corresponds directly to a computer hardware for which it is written.
What is a Low-level Languages?
A low-level programming language is a programming language which each instruction corresponds to or resembles a machine instruction. Mnemonic codes are used in place of machine codes and symbolic addresses are frequently used instead of actual machine addresses. The low-level language must be translated into machine language before use because it is not usable by the computer in symbolic or mnemonic form.
Generally each computer manufacturer formulates a low level language that corresponds closely to the particular machine language used by that manufacturer. This language is called an Assembly Language. The manufacturer also provides a program called an assembler that translates the Assembly Language into Machine Code. When a program is written in assembly language, it is called the Source Program and the translated program in Machine Code is the Object Program.
What is a High-Level Languages?
High-Level Languages: are machine independent and problem-oriented languages that reflect the type of problem solved rather than the features of the computer. Source programs are written in statements by obeying a set of rules (akin to rules of grammar in writing English). These languages have an extensive vocabulary of words, symbols and sentences. The written Programs and the statements of this language are translated into many (hundreds or more) of machine instructions by using a special program called a compiler.
Examples of High-Level Programming Language: FORTRAN, ALGOL, C, C++, Java, LISP, COBOL, PL/1, Logo, APL, PROLOG, FORTH, BASIC, Pascal, Ada etc.
Difference between High Level and Low level languages
|It is machine dependent language. The language of 1″ and 2nd generation is called low-level language.||It is machine independent language|
|Instructions of a program in low-level language are translated by compilers.||Instructions of a program written in high-level languages are translated by computers.|
|Each instruction in the program is tedious and cumbersome process.||It is much easier to understand and quicker to use.|
|It cannot be used for another type of machine and have no widespread applications.||High-level languages e.g. BASIC, C, C++, Java, FORTRAN, PASCAL, COBOL are popular and have widespread applications.|
10 Most Popular Programming Languages
Python: Python is a programming language that’s easy to learn. Python is a high level object oriented language. It is used to create many things including dynamic web applications.
Van Rossum wrote the language in 1991. The language is named after the British comedy show “Monty Python”. Python’s core syntax and semantics are very concise, but the language’s standard library is very rich.
The Python language has an open, community-based development model, overseen by a non-profit organization called the Python Software Foundation. Any features or new support that comes from other languages, all can be easily used in Python.
Big graphical projects such as: 3D rendering of movies, web serving, Python is not behind in anything. Many programs in Linux based operating systems are written in Python. Python is used to create Dropbox, BitTorrent, Blender, Guibar. Python was the main driver in the Civilization Five game. YouTube, Google AppEngine etc. sites are running on the power of Python’s WebKit. Python’s versatility in the information security industry is noteworthy. Python is commonly used for rapid software development. Among the big organizations that use Python are Google and NASA.
It’s a great choice for you if you are interested to learning this language.
C: Dennis Ritchie invented the C language in 1970. C is known as a very powerful and popular high-level language today. The language was originally intended to be used to teach code for the Unix operating system.
But soon it became a widely used language. C is widely used in a variety of computer and operating system controls. Today students are taught programming with C. C is used to create operating system kernels, joy controllers and more. Many high level languages have been developed along the lines of C. C is no match for creating software that works with less space and resources.
C++: C++ is a widely used object oriented programming language. Bjarne Stroustrup invented the language in 1980. C++ has almost all the advantages of C along with some more features and advantages.
Creating text editors, creating compilers and interpreters, database handling, communication system design, real-time system design and window-based applications are unique contributions of C++. Graphical display management like X Window System, Cute etc. is developed in C++ C++ is a legend in the world of object oriented programming and the inspiration behind Java.
Java: Java is very powerful, dynamic, high level, fully object oriented, crossplatform and generic programming language. Java is inspired by many languages. Its syntax is mainly modeled after C++. Java is very portable, so it is crossplatform. Java is used in hundreds of devices and applications. Tech giant Google also uses Java to develop Android applications.
PHP: PHP is a widely used server side programming language. It’s a great choice for you if you are interested to create dynamic web applications and works well with databases and HTML.
Kotlin: Kotlin is an open source language which developed by JetBrains. Kotlin is very popular for web development, Android development etc.
FORTRAN: The full form of the English FORTRAN word is Formula Translation. This language is very useful for solving scientific and engineering problems in a mathematical way. In 1957 IBM company introduced this language. Currently, the prevalence of this language has decreased. Although very old, the need for Fortran is not over.
Fortran is used more in supercomputers and high performance computing than in general users. The name of Fortran can be heard in the mouths of old teachers of college universities, because now the technology is full of C/C++, Java, Python etc. Fortran is a high-level language, not a low-level one like assembly. In 1953, John W. Backus (John W. Backus). IBM developed this language for use on the 704 mainframe computer.
ALGOL: Algorithm is short for Algorithmic Language. In 1958, this language emerged in Europe as a result of an effort to create a universal language that could be used by all computers. It was originally created to overcome various problems of the Fortran language. It was developed jointly by a committee of European and American computer scientists. It was mainly used by computer scientists in America and Europe to solve scientific and engineering problems.
Oracle: Oracle is developed by combining C and Java languages. Oracle Corporation was the first company to commercially market a real relational database program. Oracle has managed to gain acceptance as a network based database program in today’s world. As a result, Oracle is playing an important role as a database program. Oracle’s administrative system is very strong. Moreover, its security system is also very strong.